Please find below selected articles of interest relating to AMPK structure and regulation, Type 2 Diabetes, fatty liver, NASH, PAD and other potential indications for O304.

AMPK structure and regulation
Hardie, D.G. AMPK-activated protein kinase-an energy sensor that regulates all aspects of cell function. Genes Dev. 25, 1895-1908, 2011.

Xiao, B. et al., Structure of mammalian AMPK and its regulation by ADP. Nature 14, 230-233, 2011.

Hardie, D.G., Ross, F.A., Hawley, S.A. AMP-activated protein kinase: A Target for Drugs both Ancient and Modern. Chemistry & Biology 19, 1222-1236, 2012.

AMPK and Type 2 Diabetes
Viollet, B et al., Targeting the AMPK pathway for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Front Biosci 14, 3380-3400, 2009.

Yu, LF, et al., AMPK activators as novel therapeutics for type 2 diabetes. Curr Top Med Chem 10, 397-410, 2010.

Beall, C, et al., Loss of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 subunit in mouse beta-cells impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and inhibits their sensitivity to hypoglycaemia. Biochem J. 15, 323-333, 2010.

Levine, M.E, et al., Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population. Cell Metab. 19, 407-417, 2014.

AMPK and Autopaghy
Ebato, C., et al. Autophagy is important in islet homeostasis and compensatory increase of beta cell mass in response to high-fat diet. Cell Metab. 8:325-332, 2008.

Mihaylova, M et al., The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway coordinates cell growth, autophagy, & metabolism. Nature Cell biology 13, 1016-1023, 2011

Alers, S et al., Role of AMPK-mTOR-Ulk1/2 in the Regulation of Autophagy: Cross Talk, Shortcuts, and Feedbacks. Mol. Cell. Biol. 32, 2-11, 2012.

Cong Cong, H., Exercise-induced BCL2-regulated autophagy is required for muscle glucose homeostasis Nature 481, 511-515, 2012.

Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide
Matveyenko AV& Butler PC. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) transgenic rodents as models for type 2 diabetes. ILAR J., 47:225-233, 2006.

Clark, A& Nilsson, M.R. Islet amyloid: a complication of islet dysfunction or an aetiological factors in Type 2 diabetes? Diabetologia 47:157-169, 2005.

Rivera, J.F. et al. Human-IAPP disrupts the autophagy/lysosomal pathway in pancreatic β-cells: protective role of p62-positive cytoplasmic insclusions. Cell Death Diff 18:415-426, 2011.

AMPK and Fatty liver
Viollet, B. et al., Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver: a new strategy for the management of metabolic hepatic disorders. The Journal of Physiology, 574, 41-53, 2006.

Musso, G. et al., Emerging Molecular Targets for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Annual Review of Medicine 61, 375-392, 2010.

Birkenfeld, A. et al., Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Hepatology 59, 713-723, 2014.

Zelber-Sagi, S. et al., Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease independently predicts prediabetes during a 7-year prospective follow-up. Liver Int 33,1406-1412, 2013.

Peripheral Artheriol Disease (PAD)
Muller, M.D et al., Physiology in Medicine: Peripheral Arterial Disease. J Appl Physiol 115, 1219-1226, 2013.

Fowkes, FGR et al., Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: A systematic review and analysis. Lancet 19, 1329-1340, 2013.

Smadja, D.M et al., Thrombospondin-1 Is a Plasmatic Marker of Peripheral Arterial Disease That Modulates Endothelial Progenitor Cell Angiogenic Properties. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.31, 551-559, 2011.

AMPK and Vascular function
Zwetsloot, K. A et al., AMPK regulates basal skeletal muscle capillarization and VEGF expression, but is not necessary for the angiogenic response to exercise. J Physiol. 586, 6021–6035, 2008.

Xu,Q&Si, L-Y. Protective effects of AMP-activated protein kinase in the cardiovascular system. J Cell Mol Med 14, 2604-2613, 2010.

Ahn Y-J et al., AMP-activated protein kinase: implications on ischemic diseases. BMB Rep. 9, 489-495, 2012.

Fullerton, M.D, Steinberg. G.R, Schertzer JD. Immunometabolism of AMPK in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 366, 224-234, 2013.

Yingqiu, Liu et al., Antiplatelet effect of AMP-activated protein kinase activator and its potentiation by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor dipyridamole. Biochem. Pharmacol. 86, 914-925, 2013.

Thomas, MM et al., Muscle-specific AMPK β1β2-null mice display a myopathy due to loss of capillary density in nonpostural muscles. FASEB J. Feb 12. Epub ahead of print, 2014.

AMPK and Inflammation
O’Neill, LA&Hardie, DG. Metabolism of inflammation limited by AMPK and pseudo-starvation. Nature 493, 346-355, 2013.

Salt, IP& Palmer, TM. Exploiting the anti-inflammatory effects of AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 21,1155-1167, 2012.

AMPK and Cancer
Kim, I& He, YY. Targeting the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase for Cancer Prevention and Therapy. Front Oncol. 15, 1-12, 2013.
Hardie, DG. AMPK: a target for drugs and natural products with effects on both diabetes and cancer. Diabetes 62,2164-2172, 2013.